Report prepared by:

The International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) Sahel Programme and The Secretariat of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (.CCDI


The UN Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) entered into force in December 1996. One of the key activities in Africa has been to launch the Regional Action Programme (RAP) to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. To this effect, the Panafrican Conference held in March 1997 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, passed a resolution requesting the CCD Secretariat to facilitate the organization of a series of seven thematic workshops.

Further to this resolution, the CCD Secretariat requested the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) to organize a workshop on Networks for the Promotion of Agroforestry and Soil Conservation in context of the RAP. tCRAF hosted the workshop from 30 June to 3 July 1998 at its Sahelian Programme's base in Bamako, Mali.

This workshop on agroforestry and soil conservation was the second to be organized in the series of seven thematic meetings identified during the Ouagadougou Conference. In line with the provisions of the Convention to Combat Desertification, the workshop was convened with the following objectives :

a) to promote closer collaboration and networking of institutions/organizations in Africa dealing with agroforestry and soil conservation, within the context of implementation of the CCD;

b) to further enhance the principles of the CCD in curbing land degradation through better land use and management of natural resources in dry land areas that are affected by drought and desertification ;

c) to identify the key players for the development of the Regional Action Programme within the realms of agroforestry and soil conservation for sustainable food production in dry land areas of Africa.

Some 60 participants from various regions of sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb attended the workshop. Institutional representation included various African regional and subregional organizations, international institutions and research centres, donors, local and international NGOs and farmer organizations. The list of participants is annexed.

The meeting was officially opened by the Technical Counsellor to the Minister of Environment and Water of Mali, Mr. Mohamed Lamine Kalle.

The Regional Coordinator of ICRAF's Sahelian Programme, Dr. Edouard Bonkoungou, made the welcoming remarks on behalf of the Director General of ICRAF. He stressed the importance of agroforestry as a natural resource management option to help alleviate poverty, combat desertification and increase food and nutritional security in the drylands of Africa. He thanked the Government of Mali and the CCD Secretariat for their respective contributions towards the organization of the workshop and stated ICRAF's willingness and readiness to share its expertise and experience with other relevant organizations and to play an active role in the new initiative.

Mr. Claude Mottier, representing Ambassador Hama Arba Diallo, Executive Secretary of the CCD Secretariat, made a statement in which he first traced the general framework and origin of the workshop. In stressing the objectives to be pursued, he stated that, in view of the social and practical concerns of the Convention, participants should bear in mind that the very people at stake are those who live at village level, and whose existence depends on sufficient and well managed natural resources. Therefore his conclusion was that efforts had to focus mainly on their interests.

The workshop elected its bureau composed of :

Chairman       :          Mr. Sal if Kanoute

Permanent Secretary of PNAE and national focal point of CCD in Mali

1st Rapporteur :         Dr. Issiaka Zoungrana, Capacity and Institutional Strengthening,


2nd Rapporteur:        Mr.AbdallaGhebalou Director General, Forestry Department,


Following the adoption of the agenda, several presentations were discussed in plenary before participants proceed with deliberations in working group sessions.

PLENARY PRESENTATIONS Guidance from the CCD Secretariat

Mr. Mansour Ndiaye, from the Secretariat highlighted the fundamentals of the Convention and main steps that had already been accomplished in the process of its implementation. Dr. Moïse Akie, a Consultant of the CCD Secretariat, gave operational guidance to the workshop by elaborating further on the specific objectives, and presented the following as the expected outputs of the meeting :

* a framework for co-operation among actors in the fields of agroforestry and soil

conservation in Africa in the context of the RAP ; 

* development of partnership for the elaboration of the RAP for Africa.

Presentations by Selected organizations on their experiences

Three organizations were invited to present their experiences in Agroforestry and Soil Conservation in Combating Desertification. These are ICRAF, IFAD and FAO.

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ICRAF's présentation was made by Dr. Edouard Bonkoungou. ICRAF, a member of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) has a global mandate and leadership in agroforestry research for development. Agroforestry is defined as a dynamic, ecological ly based natural resources management system that, through the integration of trees in farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environmental benefits for land users at all levels.

ICRAF works in 6 ecoregions throughout the tropics with the following goals: increasing food and nutritional security, increasing income generation to contribute to poverty alleviation, and enhancing environmental resilience (increasing soil and water conservation, increasing soil fertility, enhancing carbon sequestration, preserving biodiversity and decreasing greenhouse emissions).

Four of the six regions are located on the African continent, which highlights the relevance of ICRAF's work to the RAP. The Sahel Programme, also known as SALWA (Semi-Arid Lowlands of West Africa), represents ICRAF's contribution to implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification. It also represents ICRAF's participation in the CGIAR Systemwide Desert Margins Programme.

The mission of SALWA programme is to develop sustainable natural resources management options that will help alleviate poverty, combat desertification and ensure  food and nutritional security in the Sahel ian region. The programme focuses on :

(i)     rehabilitation and sustainable management of the traditional farming system through domestication of agroforestry trees, soil water conservation and nutrient replenishment;

(ii)    development of improved agroforestry technologies that help intensify and

diversity agricultural production ;

(iii)    capacity and institutional strengthening.


The partnership base of the programme has increasingly broadened beyond research institutions to include educational institutions, NGOs, farmer organizations and the private sector.

The representative of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), El Hadji Sene, highlighted the main activities of his organisation, focusing on a review of general trends in soil conservation and fertility management, a discussion of agroforestry and soil conservation in the Convention and its annexes, a presentation of selected examples of FAO's experience in Africa.


He also presented an overview of possible approaches and strategies for the effective application of best known practices in agroforestry to combat soil degradation and desertification.

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Mr Séné indicated that erosion control methods have increasingly moved away from programmes on the construction of purely physical structures towards more biological methods using perennial and herbaceous plants. Current approaches use more integrated strategies which give greater responsibility to local farmers. Examples of mechanisms and programmes that illustrate the use of such new approaches in Africa include the Soil Fertility Initiative, National Forestry Action Plans and on-going efforts in research and training among others. The FAO representative made recommendations for future development of the initiative on agroforestry and soil conservation to combat desertification in Africa .

Mr Alessandro Meschinelli presented the experience of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) . IFAD is engaged in efforts to combat desertification at several levels: through studies that make available to the international community an important body of knowledge on conditions for the promotion of efficient actions to curb rural poverty; through the organisation of international meetings in the context of the CCD; through support for the elaboration of National Action Programmes and through support to the development of technologies which are simple, readily efficient, can be replicated and integrated to local socio-organisational systems.

IFAD's experience in agroforestry and soil and water conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa confirms the merit of a research-action approach which is flexible, open to farmers' initiatives and which favours negotiation with farmers to promote activities based on the improvement of traditional practices.

IFAD has recently initiated a new research programme with ICRAF on these premises. The programme, conducted in collaboration with an international NGO in the framework of a rural development project financed by IFAD in Niger, aims to develop alternative modes of relationship between researchers and the rural community and also between research and development projects. The objective of the programme is to learn how to identify and consolidate existing farmer organisational systems and to use these systems as a framework for planning and for reconciliation among land users in their often conflicting demands on natural resources. Research should build on these initiatives of the local communities and innovative farmers and on their own conception of agriculture and agroforestry.

Information Notes

In addition to the above invited presentations, all other participating institutions also made brief presentations on their experiences. The information notes were distributed to the participants.

Reference Papers

Two background documents were presented.

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In an opening keynote, Mr Robert Ndaw discussed land degradation and sustainable development in connection with the implementation of the CCD in Africa. He advocated that desertification control should become an issue of top priority for countries in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid lands of Africa, that needs to be addressed through strategic planning at national, sub-regional and regional levels.

To this effect, Mr Ndaw proposed priority thematic areas that may best benefit from such inter-State collaborative efforts as follows :

Water Use in Agriculture The following actions should be undertaken :

a)  production of irrigated fodder wherever water availability permits. This can reduce significantly the pressure on lands as it is estimated that 1 ha of irrigated fodder can help preserve 200 ha of pasture land. Introduction of appropriate irrigation technologies for fodder production can thus increase livestock productivity and reduce the negative impact of drought ;

b) improvement of infiltration and water retention capacity of soils should become a theme for sub-regional and regional cooperation, especially in the context of severe droughts that have caused notable movement of isohyets in the Sahel and at the northern margins of the Sahara desert ;

c)  strengthening of inter-State cooperation to promote optimum use of major river and lake basins and of groundwater. Africa utilizes only 3% of its water resources and hydroelectric potential. Sub-regional and regional cooperation in this area offers promising opportunities to efficiently integrate land degradation control in strategic planning.

Agronomy and Biotechnology

Current climatic changes constitute new threats to the future of African countries. As indicated earlier, rainfall has decreased in the Sahel and in the northern margins of the Sahara over the past several decades. Countries concerned should find solutions to reduce water consumption by crops. This could begin with the identification and wide use of arid zone crops with high water-use efficiency. Then research in biotechnology and genetic engineering should help reduce water use by food crops, the objective being to adapt to changing climatic conditions and to save available water resources.

Use of Local Minerals for Soil Fertility Replenishment

The enhancement of soil fertility and water retention capacity can be improved through the use of local minerals and organic matter input. Through sub-regional cooperation, countries could develop and implement investment programmes in mining, energy a"nd industry that give priority to providing farmers with cheaper fertilisers, especially through the use of local deposits of phosphate rock. Due to the high cost of imported fertilisers, their use by African farmers is very limited, leading to increasing depletion of soil nutrients in agroecosystems.

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Mr Ndaw gave figures on nutrient depletion at several locations in Mali and concluded with the recommendation to accelerate the implementation of OAU's programme on the African Fertiliser Development Centre (AFDC).

Energy for irrigation

Mr Ndaw underscored the need to promote the development and use of renewable energy, especially the use of animal power in irrigation techniques, and stressed that high level political commitment by Governments was critical to the successful implementation of the CCD.

The second background document, presented by Dr Amadou Maiga, a consultant, focused on agroforestry and soil conservation, and addressed measures to be taken by the relevant institutions and organizations to implement the RAP to combat desertification. Dr Maiga had been assigned the following tasks :

a) review the existing agroforestry and soil conservation applications in Africa's semiarid and arid ecosystems;

b) give an account of the state - of - the art in agroforestry and soil conservation in those areas affected by drought and desertification in Africa ;

c) examine critically the role of agroforestry as well as soil conservation applications in combating desertification;

d)   provide recommendations to be addressed by the relevant institutions and organizations in the preparation of the RAP;

e) identify target institutions with their possible roles in RAP implementation for networking, and suggest ideal criteria for a focal point for catalysing and galvanising co-operation in these fields, to ensure successful RAP process in Africa.

Dr Maiga reviewed existing agroforestry and soil and water conservation technologies as methods for combating desertification and made the following analysis.

Review of the Contribution of Agroforestry and Soil Conservation to the Fight Against Land Degradation in Africa

The most widely used traditional anti-erosion and soil conservation practices are those linked with water and soil moisture conservation by constructing water retention areas such as the «za and Sahelian «tassa» in Niger, soil and water retention barriers with stones or other water resistant materials. Sand dune fixation was also recognised as an important aspect of land rehabilitation in arid zones and it is commonly practiced.

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Some of the major improved soil conservation technologies include anti-erosion terraces using local materials, which do not require a lot of investment. These include stones and various types of plants that are used for sand dune fixation. The only constraint is in those areas which do not have stones, and they have to be transported from else where. Donor agencies are helping to promote some of these improved technologies, but most of them would only invest in soil conservation programmes which are linked to the economic realities of the producer for whom the land is being rehabilitated, and only those techniques that are considered economically viable would be supported.

Another important activity in soil conservation is to address the issue of capacity for handling both the physical and chemical aspects of land degradation to enhance the use local manpower and know-how. This involves the training of trainers for the improvement of traditional technologies of soil fertility rehabilitation and sustenance through compost techniques and mixing organic material with local mineral fertilisers. Other methods of soil moisture and water conservation worthy of attention include the use of ant-hill material instead of stones for barriers, terracing and sowing just before the rains to make use of all the available rain water.

Traditional agroforestry includes the use of various plant species to rehabilitate and improve the fertility of soils, contribute to food security and animal feed. The growing of fruit trees, as earlier indicated, has been a traditional practice for a long time in Africa. Trees are usually grown together with crops on the same plot. More often than not, these trees are of economic value (fruit trees) and/or socio-culturat value (sacred forests and medicinal plants). To rehabilitate degraded lands and replenish soil fertility, the fallow system is very common in Africa, but this is gradually disappearing due to population pressure. In areas of low rainfall, particular attention should be given to the competition with other crops. Another method that is widespread is that of live hedges so called haie vives, in the Sahel. These hedges also serve as windbreaks, thereby preventing the enclosed areas from land degradation resulting from wind action. The case of the «green belt» in Algeria is worth mentioning because it is multipurpose as a soil conservation measure and other attributes of potential for replication in other regions.

One major problem facing agroforestry is the change in the rainfall pattern due to a reduction in the incidence of precipitation. This has resulted in a southern movement of isohyets so that the older trees in the zones that were once covered by high precipitation are beginning to disappear as they cannot stand the shorter rainy periods due to the displacement of the isohyets southwards. In Burkina Faso the karite tree is an important example. A significant change in ecosystem species composition tends to influence peoples'response to their environment, and this often results in land degradation.

Another aspect of agroforestry and soil conservation which was concerned included those tree species with special characteristics such as those that attract too many birds. These have been well understood by the farmers and are usually avoided, as the birds are likely to feed on the grain. The spacing of trees to improve their quality is also understood by farmers as a fertility preservation measure.                                           *

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Transhumance is another factor to consider because the seasonal movement of livestock impinges on the control of the intensity of use of pastures. The alternative would be to rotate grazing lots and to develop fodder production. In view of the high involvement of women in agricultural practices, they should also be an integral part of the agroforestry intervention programmes.

Strategy for the Establishment and Diffusion of Improved and Ecological ly Sound Agroforestry, Soil and Water Conservation Technologies

The consultant underscored the need to establish a regional network as a mechanism for the diffusion of improved ecologically sound Agroforestry, soil and water conservation technologies. The role of the regional network would be:

(a) to ensure diffusion of the utilisation of positive agroforestry and soil conservation research results for use by beneficiaries at the community level ;

(b)  orientation of research programmes at the national, regional and international levels with a view to achieving results at the community level ; and

(c)  promotion of collective actions at regional level. Dr. Maiga suggested the following as key recommendations:

i) establishment of a collaborative network involving institutions with relevant expertise at regional level is required ;

(ii) strengthening of information exchange among member institutions of the network is a prequisite for effectiveness ;

(iii) there is need for establishment and strengthening of monitoring and evaluation systems to ensure institutional efficiency ;

(iii) identification of research needs and mobilisation of available expertise in Agroforestry and soil and water conservation is an essential ingredient for support to the RAP ;

(iv) institutions, organizations should take farmers' needs into account in the formulation of agroforestry  programmes.


The terms of reference of two working groups were discussed and adopted. The two groups deliberated broadly on a review of the actual contribution of agroforestry in combating land degradation as well as ways and means of strengthening inter-institutional collaboration. The reports adopted by the workshop plenary after amendments are presented below.

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Working Group 1 : Review of the Actual Contribution of Agroforestry in Combating Land Degradation in Africa and Proposals for a Strategy for Action.


In its discussions the Working Group took stock of the intensity of land degradation in Africa which had already affected 332 million hectares of which 224 million were in the Sahel, 40.7 million in the North 58.7 million in the South and 8.9 million in the rest of the continent. About 256.4 million hectares are moderately degraded and 75.9 million are extremely degraded. A significant part of the 25 million hectares now cultivated are degraded at varying degrees through the toss of fertility due to tow fertility replenishment and a serious phenomenon of salinization in irrigated lands. Overgrazing of livestock due to diminishing grazing lands and increasingly unfavourable climatic conditions over the last decade were responsible for land degradation particularly in the semi-arid pasture lands.

Land degradation has, therefore, been exacerbated by natural constraints arising from the low fertility conditions of the majority of African soils, negative climate variability and the dependence on rain-fed agriculture. About 90% of African soils are also deficient in phosphorus content. There is also the problem of a low percentage of organic matter content and a low capacity to retain water considering that 50% of the cultivated soils are in the semiarid lands. To compound this situation is the impact of human activities and the situation of poverty, which has resulted from economic management at the local level and the impacts on Africa of the adverse international economic environment.

Within this context the Working Group proceeded to address its terms of reference, which were to:

a) make a review of the actual contribution of agroforestry and soil conservation to the fight against land degradation in Africa, taking into account successes, failures and constraints in the implementation of the numerous projects/programmes for land conservation in the region ;

b) define a strategy for the establishment and diffusion of improved and ecologically sound agroforestry, soil and water conservation technologies with a view to catalysing the implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification at all levels;

c) recommend :

(i.) orientation for the present international agroforestry research related to on-going programmes for combating land degradation in Africa and the corrective measures likely to improve their contribution ; and

(ii.) the areas of priority actions on which the proposed regional cooperation network should focus its activities and towards which it advises to orient available financial resources or those that are likely to be available.

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Synthesis of the Croup Discussion

From the onset the Working Group realised that due to the limited amount of information that was available to it as well as the time constraint, it could not carry out the review fully as demanded in its terms of reference. It therefore decided to carry out an exchange of views on the major agroforestry and soil conservation techniques that were likely to significantly contribute to the implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification. It was the consensus that this orientation would lead the Group to recommendations that guide the activities of the proposed network on agroforestry.

In its deliberations the Working Group attempted to trace the origins of the concept of agroforestry and to identify the possible improvements on traditional methods of agroforestry management in Africa. The Group noted that agroforestry was an old-time traditional multi-functional practice in many societies. Its usage as a land-use concept began to be formalised early this century when it was referred to as agro-silviculture. It was during the 1970s and 1980s that ICRAF and FAO finally established the name of this land-use practice as agroforestry. An aspect of the rehabilitation of degraded lands and consequently an added contribution to soil conservation and soil fertility replenishment was also introduced.

The Group recognised that the practice of agroforestry and soil conservation varies not only with changes in land quality, but also from one ecological zone to another, as well as from one socio-organizational setting to another. In this respect, there is also an important linkage with variations in climatic conditions.

With regard to soil degradation, two aspects of the process were identified, namely, the dimension of the physical aspects as typified by soil erosion and chemical processes when there is loss of chemical nutrients in the soil. The rapid formation of hardpans, which is spreading fast and degrading the soils of the region, limiting infiltration and increasing run-off and erosion, is recognised and actions to solve the problem need to be initiated. Bearing in mind the low rainfall in the region, improvement of infiltration and water retention capacity of soils can reduce soil degradation and improve agricultural productivity. And this constitutes a promising field for regional cooperation in this thematic area.

In the contribution of agroforestry to the implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification, it is also important to consider economic aspects of agroforestry. Access to markets and improved infrastructure for that purpose would be an added incentive for the farmers at the community level to invest time and land into the practice. Investment in agroforestry and soil conservation would therefore be significantly encouraged if they directly relate to the economic returns that the farmer would derive from it. Purely technical considerations are often beyond the comprehension of the farmer who is the direct beneficiary.

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In view of the fact that the issues relating to drought and desertification affect mostly the rural communities, the Working Group also underscored that approaches to agroforestry and soil conservation within the context of the Regional Action Programme to implement the CCD must be based on the analysis of local area management. Furthermore, since the major actions relating to the Convention are integrative, an integrated approach should also be the norm. This implies developing a methodology that takes into account localized and integrated community approaches in order to enhance the initiative of the farmers. However, operational integrated methodologies for interdisciplinary and integrated analysis of agroforestry and soil conservation practices have not as yet been established.

The issue of land tenure was also considered by the Group to be crucial to the effectiveness of programmes for combating desertification. It was emphasized that land security was a precondition for commitment to long-term practices involved in anti-desertification activities and, by implication, in those related to agroforestry and soil conservation. Any significant investment in perennial crops and long-term conservation practices is greatly influenced by the type of land tenure that is in practice. The group endorsed the analysis presented by Dr. Maiga on traditional practices of agroforestry and soil conservation since these were the most widely used and best known to the rural populations and, alternative practices which would improve on traditional practices, be easily accessible and cost effective and economically affordable at the community level.

Working Group 2: Inter-institutional Collaboration

The terms of reference for the Working Group based on the main items of the agenda were discussed and adopted as follows :

a) To discuss ways and means of strengthening inter-institutional collaboration at the regional level through research, education, training, extension and information exchange. To that effect, the Working Group will identify the main actors and determine the orientation and strategies to be followed to ensure an efficient contribution of the network to the preparation, implementation and follow-up of the Regional Action Programme for Africa;

b) Make recommendations on the following : The priority areas of cooperation:

»* institutional arrangements which foster research development and coordination in Africa, at regional and sub-regional levels ;

"* the need for training and exchange of experiences ;

"* the need for supporting measures in the areas extension, sensitisation of decision makers and diffusion of scientific research results ;

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The Working Group used the consultant's report to guide its deliberations and observed that agroforestry as a land use system contributes significantly to curbing land degradation and should be encouraged, but despite the vast amount of information and technology available on agroforestry, sharing of these is still poor, and action is needed to rectify this anomally. Strengthening regional specialised institutions by harmonising policy directions, encouraging application of research findings, particularly by the farming community, training and assistance in preparing investment priorities by target beneficiaries are deemed necessary. All activities in these fields should be integrated into, and support National Action Programmes (NAPs) and Sub-regional Action Programmes (SRAPs) as appropriate.

With regard to identifying the main actors, the group came up with the classification into regional organizations/institutions, specialised institutions, sub-regional Organizations, bilateral and multilateral partners, academic Institutions (Universities, Research Centres, Technical Colleges etc.), NGOs and community-based organizations and the private sector. For each category of actors the group identified major functions and roles that they may play within the RAP. The proposal is summarised in table 1 below :


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The group agreed that with regard to the priority areas of collaboration, the network should be able to collect, analyse and disseminate information as well as engage in capacity strengthening for identified actors and beneficiaries particularly research and training centres at national, sub-regional and regional levels. The network should promote the integration of research findings into development, undertake assessment and evaluation of the impact of international research in agroforestry and soil conservation programmes in Africa, and orientation of its programmes according to the needs of African communities. On institutional capacities, identification and evaluation of institutional support needs at national and sub-regional level for the promotion of agroforestry and soil conservation would be also undertaken.

Regarding the institutional arrangements the group discussed and agreed on the fact that the best way to co-ordinate among themselves is to establish and/or strengthen an effective network among the relevant institutions dealing with this thematic area. The network will have a clear mandate from its members. This mandate could include formulation of a clear operational framework, consolidation of activities and knowledge base in the areas of soil conservation and agroforestry and establishment of linkages between specialised existing institutions.

A Focal Point will be entrusted to follow the CCD process at the regional level. The focal point to be designated will perform the following functions :

institutions and relevant NGOs.


·         It should report on the progress of activities and projects agreed upon by the

network members to the network and the Regional Coordination Unit. * It will be the

main channel of network information from members on the state-of-the-art in soil

conservation and agroforestry.

The selected focal point would be expected to meet the following set of criteria :

(i)                  Willingness and commitment to co-operate and contribute to the formulation of the RAP;

(ii)                Should have proven capacity (geographic representation, human resources skills, sufficient infrastructure) ;

(iii)       Activities must have direct bearing to combating desertification ; (iv)    Ability

            and  readiness to co-operate and conduct joint and complementary missions or

            activities with other institutions at regional and international levels ;

(v)       Ability to mobilise financial resources and harmonise its activities with

those of the network.

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As regards the désignation of the focal point, the group recommended that the CCD Secretariat invite all specialized institutions to indicate their interest in being the focal point, and to submit their offer to the CCD Secretariat on the basis of the criteria and role of focal point as agreed upon. It recommended that the Secretariat should receive these applications at least three months before the Forum on African Regional Action Programme to Combat Desertification. This wilt allow enough time for the Secretariat to compile information on the applicants, and submit the list to the Ministerial segment of the RAP Forum, where the selection of the focal point will be made.


It was deemed necessary to come out with recommendations that would enhance actions in agroforestry and soil conservation within the context of the Convention to Combat Desertification. The recommendations would also serve as a contribution to the activities of the proposed network and inputs into the orientation of the regional and sub-regional action programmes.

Recommendations Related to Areas of Research Development

d) Policy analysis

Policy defines the framework for government action. Such a policy should provide the enabling environment for all the actions in an integrated manner from the policy makers down to the beneficiaries at the grassroots level. This area of research would therefore be farmer-oriented based on their participation in identifying mutual gaps in technology sharing, so as to make research results adaptable to their needs. Research on natural resources management policies should not only provide an understanding of the process that would facilitate decision making, but also whose results would simultaneously take into account technical issues as well as the socio-organizational dimensions that affect agroforestry and soil conservation practices.

Research on land tenure systems should provide suggestions on how land tenure security could be achieved by the users to facilitate long-term investment in agroforestry and soil conservation practices, thereby contributing fully to the implementation of programmes to combat desertification.

(ii) Soil fertility replenishment

Research on soil fertility replenishment should focus on better understanding of traditional approaches to soil fertility conservation and management to enable the adaptation of traditional approaches in integrated soil fertility management.

(iii) Domestication of species


Research on the domestication of woody species should aim at increasing the range of improved species available to the farmer. Research should seek the appropriate methodologies for making the farmer participate in the selection of species to be domesticated in order to determine and understand the preferences and monitor performance.

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(iv) Evaluation and dissémination of agroforestry systems and technologies

Research on agroforestry systems and technologies should aim at partidpatory evaluation and dissemination of agroforestry systems and technologies built into a "system paradigm" which could be replicated. Research on agroforestry systems should also encourage evolution of biotechnologies aimed at reducing plant water consumption while maintaining their level of productivity.

(v) Capacity building at all levels

To support activities in agroforestry and soil conservation, the required capacity must be strengthened at the level of the farmer, community-based organizations (CBOs) and NGOs, upto the policy and decision makers, in order to improve communication across the spectrum of actors and facilitate adaptation of technology and practices as well as sharing achievement tools.

Recommendations Related to Collective Action at Regional Level

·         The Workshop examined areas that should promote collective multinational action in the implementation of the African Regional Action Programme. These areas include :

·         the rational and equitable use of shared water resources including their legal context;

·         decentralisation in respect of strengthening rural community systems and their authority over resources ;

·         issues related to the management of transhumance activities and related multinational management issues ;

·         enacting policies that would provide an enabling environment for integrated collective actions including all partners from policy makers to beneficiaries at grass root levels; and,

·         encouragement of land tenure systems that would ensure land security for the users, facilitating long-term investment in the land.

Recommendation on General Status of Agroforestry and Soil Conservation in Africa

The workshop recommended that an in-depth analysis of the status of Agroforestry and Soil Conservation in Africa be carried out with a view to assessing the existing institutional capacities, training needs and other necessary support measures in these fields. The CCD Secretariat was requested to find ways and means of facilitating such an undertaking.

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Bamako, mali, 30 june to 03 july  1998







08h30 - 09h00             Registration of participants


09h00 - 10h00             Opening ceremony

-          Introduction by the Master of Ceremony

-          Welcome remarks by Director General of ICRAF

-          Statement by the Representative of the Executive Secretary of the CCD Secretariat

-          Statement by the Representative of the Government of Mali H.E the Minister for Environment


10h00 - 10h15                         Coffee break and group photo


10h15 - 10h30                         Election of the bureau and adoption of the Agenda and

Programme of work


10h30 - 11h00             Introduction on the Organization of the Workshop



11h00 - 11h30             Presentation by ICRAF on its experience in these areas


11h30 -12h00                          Presentation by IFAD Representative on its

Organization Experience in these areas in the Africa



12h00 - 12h30             Presentation by UNEF Representative on its

Organization Experience in these areas in the Africa



12h30 - 14h00             Lunch


14h00 - 14h30             Presentation by FAO Representative on its

Organization Experience in these areas in the Africa




14h30 - 16h00                         Presentation by Information Notes by Representatives

African specialized institutions


16h00 - 16h15             Coffee break


16h15 - 16h45             Presentation of the Reference Paper by two consultant




Oval: Wednesday 01 july 1998 




08h00 - 09h00             Presentation of the terms of reference and organization

of two working groups


09h00 - 10h00             Working group sessions


10h00 - 10h30             Coffee break


10h30 - 12h30             Continuation of working group sessions


12h30 - 14h30             Lunch


14h30 - 16h00             Continuation of working group sessions







08h30 - 10h00             Continuation of working group sessions : consideration

of reports in the working groups


10h00 - 10h30             Coffee break


10h30 - 12h30             Continuation of working group sessions  : discussion of

reports in the working groups


12h30 - 14h00             Lunch


14h00 - 18h00             * Finalization of working group reports (by rapporteurs)

*Preparation of workshop report (by the Bureau with 

  assistance of the CCD Secretariat)

* Preparation of the recommandations

* Field visit to Samanko station by other participants






08h30 - 09h45             Review of the Reports of the working groups


09h45 - 10h00                         Presentation of the workshop report and recommendations


10h30 - 10h30             Coffee break


10h30-11h30                           Adoption of the final report                  


11h30 - 12h30             Concluding statements and cosure of the workshop






AKLE Moïse Consultant CCD


Lot 138E, Zone des Ambassades Cotonou, Benin

Tel: 229/33 65 70

AMANI Hamidou

Chef Dpt. Développement Rural

Autorité du Liptako Gourma B.P.619

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Tel: 226/30 61 48/49 - Fax: 226/30 85 88

ASIAMAH Rexford Dickson


Soil Research Institute PMB,

Academy Post Office Kwadaso-Kumasi, Ghana

Tel: 233-51/50 060/50 353/50 354

Fax: 233-51/50 308


BA Souleymane Bayla

Assistant supérieur de recherche


s/c ICRISAT Mali B.P. 320 Bamako, Mali

Tel: 223/22 33 75 - Fax: 223/22 86 83



Chercheur en Chimie/Fertilité des sols

International Fertilizer Development Center

B.P. 12404 Niamey, Niger

Tel: 227/72 25 29 - Fax: 227/75 43 29


BEN BOUBAKER Abderrahmane



Réseau Maghrébin d'Agroforesterie

l, rue Ghamouk, Cité El Aïlz La Marsa 2078,


Tel/Fax: 216-1/727320


Coordonnateur régional


ICRAF B.P. 320 Bamako, Mali

Tel:223/22 33 75 - Fax: 223/22 86 83

CAMARA Finemory

Coordonnateur national


Sasakawa Global 2000

B.P. E 3541 Bamako, Mali

Tel: 223/77 19 30 - Fax: 223/21 90 28



Chef de division Agrométéo



B.P. 237 Bamako, Mali

Tel: 223/22 21 01 - Fax: 223/22 21 01


Chargé de Programmes/CCD



11-13 chemin des Anémones 1219 Châtelaine, Genève

Tel: 41-22/917 8258 - Fax: 41-22/917 8031/30



N'DlAYE Mohamadou Mansour

Chargé de Programmes/CCD



11-13 chemin des Anémones 1219 Châtelaine, Genève

Tel: 41-22/917 8419 - Fax: 41-22/917 8031/30





B.P.2357 Bamako, Mali

Tel: 223/23 10 74 - Fax: 223/23 58 67


Associé de Recherche


01 B.P. 1783

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Tel: 226/30 60 71 - Fax: 226/31 15 98 oua.


Chef de division/UMA



26, rue Oqba Agdal Rabat, Maroc

Tel: 212-2/77 26 82 -

Fax: 212-2/77 26 93


Environment Specialist


The World Bank 1818 H Street

Washington DC 20433 - USA

Tel: 1-202/458845 - Fax: 1-202/477 0568/522 0367



Chef de section/Aménagement et gestion des ressources forestières


B.P. 275 Bamako, Mali

SENE E-Hadji

Chef de Service/Conservation des Forêts, Recherche et Enseignement Forestier/FAO



Viale délie Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome, Italie

Tel.3906/57055978 - Fax: 3906/57055137 e-mail:

SEYDOU Ournarou

Secrétaire exécutif/CNEDD

CNEDD Niamey, Niger

Tel: 227/72 225 53 - Fax: 227/72 29 81

SOGOBA Soumaila

Ingénieur Eaux et Forêts

I.E.R. Programme Ressources Forestières

B.P. 258 Bamako, Mali

Tel: 223/24 64 28 -

Fax: 223/22 75 88


Programme Officer

ECA/SRDC West Africa

B.P. 744 Niamey, Niger

Tel: 227/72 29 61/72 36 24 -

Fax: 227/72 28 94


TANKAONO Michel Jérôme Coordonnateur Programme Sahel Burkinabé

Secrétariat Permanent du CONAGESE

B.P. 6486 Ouagadougou

Burkina Faso

Tel: 226/30 73 43 -

Fax: 226/31 64 91



Ministère de l'Environnement

B.P. 2357 Bamako, Mali

Tel: 223/23 10 74 - Fax: 223/23 58 67

TRAORE Gaoussou

Point focal CCD/Institut du Sahel

Institut du Sahel

B.P. 1530 Bamako, Mali

Tel: 223/23 40 67/22 21 48 -

Fax: 223/22 23 37


TRUX Anneke Conseiller

Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel

l, rue Miollis 75015 Paris, France

Tel: 33-1/42 73 32 68

Fax: 33-1/42 73 3827  

VAN DUIVENBOODEN Niek Senior Scientist Land Use Systems


B.P. 12404 Niamey, Niger

Tel: 227/722 529 -

Fax: 227/754 329


WADE Papa Mawade

Point focal national CCD


B.P. 15582

Dakar-Fann, Sénégal

Tel: 221/825 8066/7 - Fax: 221/825 8168


ZIDA Bertrand


CILSS B.P. 7049

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Tel: 226/30 62 51 -

Fax: 226/30 71 18




B.P. 320 Bamako, Mali

Tel: 223/22 33 75 - Fax: 223/22 86 83