This freely available chapter reviews the land-use issues, assesses the weaknesses, and reviews the options available for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources in the dryland regions of the world. The information presented is based largely on publications and office reports of the past 35 years. After the general features of dryland environments and how people use their natural resources are discussed, challenges to the sustainable use of natural resources are considered. The close correlation between the dryland regions of the world and the occurrence of environmental degradation and desertification is then indicated. Finally, polices necessary to sustain the use of land and natural resources while controlling environmental degradation and desertification including strategies for policy implementation are described.