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Risk mitigation measures

The Drought Resilience, Adaptation and Management Policy (DRAMP) Framework and its guidelines and background documents, as well as the Handbook of Drought Indicators and Indices and database provide an overview of possible indicators and indices for drought monitoring.

The UNCCD Drought Toolbox provides tools and methods to reduce drought risk, be better prepared and effectively respond to drought. We will ask you a few simple questions that will help you find the right database or developed systems for your assessment. You can select more than one option or skip the questions when you are not sure about the answer. For more information on how to use the tool click here.

The methodology and the solutions displayed in this tool were compiled and based on expert knowledge.

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81 results for Pillar 3 (risk mitigation)

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Thinking ahead: Drought resilience and COVID-19

COVID-19 is a defining moment for strengthening drought resilience of society and managing ecosystems more sustainably. Both recent and historical…

Details

COVID-19 is a defining moment for strengthening drought resilience of society and managing ecosystems more sustainably. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events. Drought, combined with other ecosystem changes such as habitat degradation, preceded the COVID-19 outbreak and has been associated with many other types of epidemics in the past. This paper highlights that the interactions between human, ecosystems and ecology often govern drought-linked disease. Factoring these interactions and their impacts on vulnerable communities and their environment is important for drought preparedness, resilience, and recovery. It also calls for increased investments and defines important steps for government and international agencies in responding to post COVID-19 period and in building back better for a more drought-resilient society and ecosystems. These steps require cross-sectoral, inter-disciplinary cooperation that responds to and addresses the underlying causes behind future disease outbreaks for a healthy living.

Thinking ahead: Drought resilience and COVID-19
Food gardening in a drought water-saving strategies

Sonoma County Master Gardeners have produced several documents that address gardening under drought conditions.

Details

With drought conditions official, you may be wondering whether or not to bother with a food garden in a drought year. There are water-wise actions that can be employed for a successful harvest. Sonoma County Master Gardeners have produced several documents that address gardening under drought conditions in detail. 

Realising the Carbon Benefits of Sustainable Land Management Practices. A report of the Science-Policy Interface

The UNCCD-SPI technical report “Realising the Carbon Benefits of Sustainable Land Management Practices: Guidelines for Estimation of Soil Organic…

Details

The UNCCD-SPI technical report “Realising the Carbon Benefits of Sustainable Land Management Practices: Guidelines for Estimation of Soil Organic Carbon in the Context of Land Degradation” provides decision guidance for the estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in support of appropriate deployment of sustainable land management (SLM) technologies, in order to maintain or increase carbon in the soil and contribute to the achievement of land degradation neutrality (LDN). The report was produced to support the need for policy tools that provide guidance on harmonized methods for accurate estimations of changes in soil (SOC) stocks resulting from SLM interventions.

The report provides a framework and a set of decision trees to help countries i) identify suitable and region-specific SLM practices and approaches to maintain or enhance SOC stocks, and ii) estimate and monitor SOC for land use planning and for monitoring LDN. It also provides a comparative list of tools and models for SOC assessment and selection for SLM approaches and technologies, including approaches for monitoring changes in SOC stocks from local to national scales.

Realising the Carbon Benefits of Sustainable Land Management Practices. A report of the Science-Policy Interface
Decision trees for SOC estimation and management to achieve LDN

Manage SOC using sustainable land management to pursue LDN

Details

The primary instrument for avoiding and reducing degradation is the application of sustainable land management, (SLM) approaches, and technologies. Because of its multifunctional roles and its sensitivity to land management, soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the three global indicators for LDN, so predicting and monitoring change in SOC is vital to achieving LDN targets.

The following decision trees will guide efforts to predict change in SOC under alternative SLM practices, and monitor SOC change in response to SLM interventions, and thereby support decision-makers to pursue the right SLM interventions in the right locations, at the right time, at the right scale with the overall goal to increase or maintain SOC and improve soil health in support of LDN achievement.

The GWP IWRM ToolBox Management Instruments

Management Instruments

Details

Management instruments are specific methods that enable decision makers to make rational and informed choices when it comes to water management and to tailor their actions to specific situations. Good water governance, according to IWRM principles brings together perspectives and knowledge from different domains. Consequently, the instruments presented here are based on a variety of disciplines such as hydrology, hydraulics, environmental sciences, system engineering, legal sciences, sociology, and economics.

The GWP IWRM ToolBox Management Instruments
The GWP IWRM ToolBox Institutional Arrangements

Institutional Arrangements

Details

It is often said that the current water crisis is mainly a crisis of governance, much more than a crisis of water shortage or water pollution per se. In the context of IWRM, governance is defined as the range of political, social, economic and administrative institutions that are in place (or need to be in place) to develop and manage water resources in sustainable manners. This section identifies four institutional roles that must be fulfilled for water governance systems to achieve sound IWRM practices: B1 – Regulation and Enforcement; B2 – Water Supply and Sanitation Services; B3 – Coordination and Facilitation; and B4 – Capacity Building.

The GWP IWRM ToolBox Institutional Arrangements
The GWP IWRM ToolBox The Enabling Environment

The Enabling Environment

Details

A proper enabling environment establishes the rights and assets of all stakeholders (individuals as well as public and private sector organizations and companies, women as well as men, the poor as well as the better off), while ensuring for environmental quality. The enabling environment essentially consists of “rules of the game” that are laid out as to achieve a sustainable balance between the social, economic and environmental needs for water. These rules can be defined by the use of: (1) Policies; (2) Legislative Frameworks; and (3) Financing and Investment Structures.

The GWP IWRM ToolBox The Enabling Environment
Guidelines and Background Documents for Development of National Drought Plan

Gender entry points in the development of a national drought management policy

Details

Guidelines and Background Documents for Development of National Drought Plan (Annex II). The assumption that negative impacts of drought have similar effects on both women and men has existed for a long time. However, it is now recognized that women and men are affected by drought differently, and that gender inequalities diminish women’s capacity to cope with drought. It has been acknowledged that women are important holders of drought-related adaptation and risk reduction knowledge and skills. Therefore, there is an urgent need to adopt gender-responsive approaches in drought preparedness policy making and programming to enable the crucial role of women as actors in drought-risk management initiatives.

Who's involved
Central Government;
Local Government;
Schools; Community;
Civil Society;
Private Sector
Gender equality issues to the center of LDN

Drought-smart land management and gender

Details

The Land-Drought Nexus: Enhancing the role of land-based interventions in drought mitigation and risk management (Chapter 3). D-SLM the conceptual framework presented by the SPI brings gender equality issues to the center of LDN. Unpacking the complexities of gender. It will enable a better understanding of how men and women are best able to cope with droughts in the developing world.

Who's involved
Government, NGOs, humanitarian agencies
A Report of the Science-Policy Interface

The Land-Drought Nexus: Enhancing the role of land-based interventions in drought mitigation and risk management

Details

The objective of the technical report is to provide a comprehensive review of existing synthesis reports and primary literature in order to: (a) highlight the potential of land-based interventions to mitigate the effects of drought by increasing the resilience of ecosystems and the socioeconomic well-being of populations; and (b) provide guidance to support the adoption and implementation of land-based interventions for drought management and mitigation in the context of LDN. This is a planned contribution to the Work Program 2018-2019 of the UNCCD’s Science-Policy Interface (SPI).

Who's involved
Central Government;
Local Government;
Schools; Community;
Civil Society;
Private Sector
A Report of the Science-Policy Interface
GWP: Integrated Water Resources Management Toolbox

Good water governance toolbox

Details

The Global Water Partnership: Integrated Water Resources Management (GWP IWRM) ToolBox contains knowledge and learning about integrated water resources management.

The Tools and References are knowledge. The Case Studies are where the learning takes place (applying the Tools).

There are about 60 Tools: these are the key concepts that have to be addressed in managing water. IWRM is not a step-by-step process to success; the practitioner and the policy maker have to select the relevant mix and sequence of tools that have the best chance of working in a specific community or country.

Case Studies illustrate how the Tools work in real experience. The cases come from all over the world and offer lessons learned in a specific context.

References range from policy papers to training manuals to research documents to articles – an array of resources linked to specific Tools and Case Studies. GWP doesn’t have a monopoly on IWRM knowledge which is why References usually point to material provided by other organisations.

Who's involved
Governments,
humanitarian organizations,
NGOs,
community
FAO: The Drought Portal

Tools, methodologies, publications, and best practices

Details

The overall goal of FAO’s actions on drought is to develop the capacity of drought-prone countries to increase societal resilience and enhance their drought responses and recovery capabilities to reduce the impacts of future drought events.

  • Awareness creation to improve understanding among policy-makers and decision-makers of the importance of drought risk management; 
  • The development of guidelines tailored for specific drought-prone regions and of other technical tools to facilitate the adoption of proactive drought management policies at the country level;
  • Capacity development in drought policy through training at the regional and country levels;
  • The provision of direct support to countries to implement proactive drought management policies through field projects;
  • Building partnerships with specialized organizations and research centers as well as with country-level and regional networks of institutions concerned with drought to promote proactive drought policies and enhance country support;
  • Carrying out studies to characterize drought and its management in different regions (FAO, 2019).
Integrated Drought Management HelpDesk

Integrated Drought Management HelpDesk: Mitigation, Preparedness & Response

Details

Drought mitigation, preparedness, and response comprise the appropriate measures and actions aimed at reducing the vulnerability to drought and reducing the impacts of droughts. The goal of the pillar on drought mitigation, preparedness and response is to determine appropriate mitigation and response actions aimed at risk reduction, the identification of appropriate triggers to phase in and phase out mitigation actions, particularly short-term actions, during drought onset and termination and, finally, to identify agencies or ministries or organizations to develop and implement mitigation actions.

Who's involved
Governments,
humanitarian organizations,
NGOs,
community
New finance and credit schemes (e.g. microcredit)

Microloan for poverty-stricken individuals

Details

A small financial loan made to poverty-stricken individuals seeking to start their own business. This type of loan typically does not exceed a couple hundred dollars, so an impoverished individual can not solely depend on this type of loan to fund their business. Also called micro loan

Advantages / Benefits
It allows people to better provide for their families
It gives people access to credit
It provides families with an opportunity to provide an education to their children
It can create jobs
It is sustainable
It encourages people to save
Who's involved
Microcredit providers
Farmers
Banks
NGOs
Groundwater recharge

Recharge depleted groundwater reserves

Details

Pump water back into depleted groundwater reserves or use natural recharge processes. Can be done using treated wastewater

Advantages / Benefits
Provides additional water sources during drought
Provides an additional way of storing water when water availability is high
Aquifers also offer a sustainable water treatment option
Who's involved
Private companies
Governments
Improved food security risk monitoring

Food security: humanitarian decisions

Details

Tracks changes in people's food security situations to alert the humanitarian community when a situation deteriorates to ensure that assistance can be provided in a timely and appropriate way

Advantages / Benefits
A comprehensive food security risk analysis and monitoring system should provide information that can help answer questions such as: who are the food insecure and vulnerable
where they live
why they are food insecure and vulnerable
what intervention options are most appropriate
Who's involved
Governments
humanitarian organizations
Assessing drought damage and vulnerability

Consists in assessing the vulnerability of a society to drought which can depend on several factors such as population, technology, policy, social…

Details

Consists in assessing the vulnerability of a society to drought which can depend on several factors such as population, technology, policy, social behavior, land use patterns, water use, economic development and diversity of economic base and cultural composition.The Disaster Risk Profiles are representations of information regarding a population, place or system’s exposure, sensitivity and resilience to given hazards that can be applied to DRM strategies in a district

Advantages / Benefits
Precise data on people who are vulnerable to drought
Support decision making
Who's involved
NGOs
International Organizations
Governments
Assessing drought damage and vulnerability
Improved health monitoring

Drought-related health implications

Details

The health implications of drought are numerous and far reaching. Some drought-related health effects are experienced in the short-term and can be directly observed and measured. However, the slow rise or chronic nature of drought can result in longer term, indirect health implications that are not always easy to anticipate or monitor. There is still limited evidence on the health impacts of drough and more research is needed. The main health effects of drought include: nutrition-related, water-related disease, airborne and dust-related disease, vector borne disease and mental health.

Advantages / Benefits
Results can be used to support the disaster risk reduction process
These systems are becoming available in more and more areas of the world, providing the opportunity to create more sophisticated data
Who's involved
Government, NGOs, humanitarian agencies
Forage reserves

Rangeland and grazing systems management

Details

Areas of rangeland and grazing systems are kept aside as reserves during periods of low fodder availability

Advantages / Benefits
Reduces chances of livestock losses during drought
Stability of income
Who's involved
Farmers
Groundwater management and conservation

Long-term benefits in groundwater

Details

Groundwater management means management of groundwater sub-basins to provide for multiple long-term benefits without resulting in or aggravating conditions that cause significant economic, social, or environmental impacts, such as long-term overdraft, land subsidence, or damage to ecosystems

Advantages / Benefits
Ground water generally does not get polluted Since bore well is closed, no risk of getting contaminated
Since it is closed no danger of children or animals falling into it
Temperature of deep water remains stable
It feels cool in summer and warm in winter
Since bore wells are deep, chances of water remaining available in summer are higher
Who's involved
Local water councils
Farmers
Non-governmental organization (NGOs)s
Farmers
Water reuse and recycling

Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be…

Details

Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes. Reuse may include irrigation of gardens andagricultural fields or replenishing surface water and groundwater (for example, groundwater recharge)

Advantages / Benefits
Low cost
Water conservation
Useful for irrigation
Who's involved
Private sector
Farmers
Non-governmental organizations
Irrigation companies
Farmers
Water reuse and recycling
Water purification technologies

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water. The goal is…

Details

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for human consumption (drinking water), The methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation; biological processes such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon; chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.

Advantages / Benefits
Effective in improving drinking water quality
Contribute to substantial health gains in populations using them
May create profitable local enterprises (manufacturing and distribution) that will contribute to the economic sustainability of the technology and benefit the local economy
After the water has been purified
Furthermore, these technologies do not require a lot of energy to maintain as the chemical process itself is simple
Who's involved
Governments, humanitarian organizations
NGO
community
Water purification technologies
Promotion of water-saving technologies in irrigation

Irrigation: optimize production by minimizing inputs and risks

Details

Improved water-saving technologies include sprinkler systems, micro and drip irrigation, flood irrigation andf urrow-basinirrigation. Small-scale irrigation is most successful when managed and controlled by farmers who have access to independent water sources, it is best suited for small-scale farmers seeking to optimize production by minimizing inputs and risks

Advantages / Benefits
Saves water
lowers inputs and risks
Energy savings by using less energy for heating, pumping, and treating water
Financial savings result from decreased water use and service costs
Various environmental benefits include increased water availability for local streams, wetlands and their natural inhabitants, and fewer water projects
Positive publicity stemming from environmental protection efforts
Who's involved
Local businesses (design and manufacture), farmers, government, financing institutions
Desalination technology

SLM example from the WOCAT database

Details

Desalination is a process of removing dissolved salts from seawater to produce fresh water for consumption. There are two major types of desalination technologies around the world, namely membrane desalination and thermal desalination

Advantages / Benefits
Desalination plants can provide drinking water in areas where no natural supply of potable water exists
Who's involved
Private water companies
Government water companies
Desalination technology
Soap and sanitizer distribution programs

Household-level access to piped water

Details

Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infections. However, effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion people do not have household-level access to piped water

Advantages / Benefits
Sanitizer distribution programs improve hand hygiene, which in turn reduces the chances to contract desease
Hand sanitizer and soap kill all bacteria and micro-organisms and are very portable
Who's involved
Governments, NGOs
Early maturing crop varieties

Crop diversification

Details

Eearly maturing crop varieties can yield a positive harvest within three months of planting to protect farmers in case of low rainfall or drought

Advantages / Benefits
Can help minimize the effect of climate change on farming activities affected by shortened rainfall patterns, erratic rainfalls or drought
Crops maturing early can ensure quick economic return on the harvest
resistance to cracking of fruit
harvest has the same size as a standard variety, good aesthetics and safety during transportation
Who's involved
Government, farmers
Promotion of domestic and commercial water-saving technologies

Water eficiency in times of shortages

Details

Water saving technologies in domestic and commercial setting include low flow taps and showerheads, water efficient appliances, low water use machinery. Water efficient technologies help reduce consumptive water use during times of water shortages

Advantages / Benefits
Saves water and can reduce water costs to domestic and commercial users
Who's involved
Civil society
Private companies
Government
Agrometeorological stations in highly vulnerable agricultural areas

Data-acquisition unit (arQ)

Details

An agrometeorological station uses the advanced remote data-acquisition unit (arQ) geared with multi-parameter weather sensors which can simultaneously measure wind speed speed and direction; air temperature; air humidity; air pressure, rain amount, duration and intensity, soil moisture and temperature, solar radiation, and sunshine duration. The station gets data from the sensor for transmission via SMS or satellite network.

Advantages / Benefits
Reduces vulnerability of the agriculture, specifically resource-poor upland farmers and communities to the impacts of climate change and related natural disasters through timely and accurate data monitoring
also can be used for the dissemination of agricultural meteorological advice, warning, forecast, bulletin and other important information needed by farmers
Who's involved
Governments
research institutions and networks
manufacturing companies
Monitoring and metering water resources

Measurement: consumption of water

Details

Implementing water meters and water monitoring systems to measure the extraction of water from surface water and ground water resources. Aim is measure consumption of water which is the first step to recognising the value of the water resource and reducing consumption.

Advantages / Benefits
Saves water
Suitable for all water resources - irrigation, domestic, industrial
Who's involved
Farmers, private sector, governments
Satellite technology for drought monitoring

Consists of an artificial body placed in orbit round the earth which collects information or data by providing consistent observations at high…

Details

Consists of an artificial body placed in orbit round the earth which collects information or data by providing consistent observations at high spatial density with global coverage

Advantages / Benefits
Covers a wide area of earth or an entire country
Easy to install and to manage data from the ground
Used in wide variety of applications which go beyond weather forecasting (such as radio/TV signal broadcasting, global mobile communication and connecting remote areas)
Who's involved
Satellite manufacturers
Space agencies (governmental and private)
Private sector companies
Satellite technology for drought monitoring
Crop insurance systems

Reduced harvest insurance systems

Details

Crop insurance refers to an insurance which insures farmers and crop producers against their loss of crops due to natural disasters, such as hail, drought and floods

Advantages / Benefits
Stability in income
Minimal debts
Technological advancement
Yield protection
Who's involved
Farmers
Unions
Consortia
Insurance providers
Teaching water conservation in schools

Develop and implement water conservation education into school curricula at priamry and secondary levels.

Details

Develop and implement water conservation education into school curricula at priamry and secondary levels.

Advantages / Benefits
Very low cost way to conserve water during periods of shortage or where water resources are highly constrained
Who's involved
Civil society
Government
Teaching water conservation in schools
Near real-time drought monitoring systems

Establishing regular systems and protocols for government agencies such as weather services to frequently watch drought indicators, such as the…

Details

Establishing regular systems and protocols for government agencies such as weather services to frequently watch drought indicators, such as the precipitation based Standardised Precipitation Index, satellite-based Drought Severity Index, and/or composite indicators such as the US Drought Monitor. The near real-time system can identify drought as it occurs and before major impacts are felt. monitor the onset of drought.
Advantages / Benefits
Identifies drought as it occurs and before major impacts are felt
Allows preparation measure to be enacted in a timely fashion
Who's involved
Governments
research institutions and networks
Water pricing and economic incentives to reduce use

Water supply infrastructure, meter, and monitoring

Details

Put a price on water and create a market to turn water into a commodity with economic value

Advantages / Benefits
Creates an economic incentive to conserve water use
Who's involved
Governments
private sector
Modernisation of irrigation to use less water

Irrigation techniques, efficiency of water use

Details

Enhance the efficient use of water through improved management and advanced irrigationtechnologies

Advantages / Benefits
For proper nourishment of crops certain amount of water is required
Irrigation improves the yield of crops and makes people prosperous
Sometimes large irrigation channels can be used as a means of communication
Who's involved
Irrigation companies
Farmers
NGOs
Government
No-till/conservation agriculture

Soil conservation

Details

Cropping systems that do not distrurb (or till) the soil

Advantages / Benefits
Increases water infiltration, retention of organic matter, cycling of nutrients and biological diversity in soil
Reduces soil erosion
Can increase profitability of cropping systems
Who's involved
Farmers
Increase capacity of exisiting water storages

Water storage practices

Details

Expand water storages such as dams by raising height of dam walls, adding storage tanks to exisiting rainwater harvesting infrastructure.

Advantages / Benefits
Increases water supply
Who's involved
Governments
private sector
Domestic rainwater harvesting structures

Rain water harvesting is a technique for collection and storage of rain water in surface (storage tanks) or sub-surface aquifer before it is lost…

Details

Rain water harvesting is a technique for collection and storage of rain water in surface (storage tanks) or sub-surface aquifer before it is lost as surface runoff

Advantages / Benefits
Easy to maintain
Reduces water bills
Suitable for irrigation
Reduces demand on groundwater
Reduces soil erosion
Who's involved
Government
NGOs
Private companies
Domestic rainwater harvesting structures
Deficit irrigation

Irrigation strategies

Details

Application of irrigation water during drought-sensitive growth stages of a crop. Outside these periods, irrigation is limited or even unnecessary if rainfall provides a minimum supply of water. Water restriction is limited to drought-tolerant phenological stages, often the vegetative stages and the late ripening period.

Advantages / Benefits
Maximises productivity of water without significantly compromising yield
Stabilises crop yileds compared to rainfed cultivation
Reduces nutrient loss and leaching of the root zones, resulting in better groundwater quality and less fertilizer requirements compared to full irigation
Who's involved
Governments, farmers, research institutes
Back-up water supply infrastructure – e.g. RO units

Water purification technology: Reverse osmosis

Details

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove pathogens (bacteria, viruses); agrochemicals, chloride, organic matter, industrial waste, chemicals, heavy metals, toxins, pesticides, minerals and particles from drinking water. An RO unit is a self-contained water treatment system.

Advantages / Benefits
Provides a safe and sustainable way to ensure the supply of clean drinking water
Who's involved
Government, NGOs, humanitarian organizations
Media information and drought awareness raising campaigns

Raising public awareness means creating a campaign with a specific message on a particular issue

Details

Raising public awareness means creating a campaign with a specific message on a particular issue

Advantages / Benefits
People become aware of the issue of drought
Enhance audience preparedness to tackle the issue
Audience can transmit the message to other people
Who's involved
NGOs
local institutions
schools
Media information and drought awareness raising campaigns
Soil moisture probes

Platforms able to provide information and data on the status of soil

Details

Platforms able to provide information and data on the status of soil
Advantages / Benefits
Accuracy
Ability to read multiple soil parameters
Continuous measurement's at the same location
Low cost
Who's involved
Private sector companies
farmers
Research institutions
Improved water supply to schools (large concrete tanks and wells)

Improve water facilities for schools

Details

Water tanks are installed to collect rainwater andincrease the efficiency of water use/reduce potable water use in toilet flushing and irrigation. These approaches place a major emphasis on the improvement of sanitation facilities, access to safe and sufficient water for drinking, food preparation, hand washing, laundering, use of flush toilets, toilet and other cleaning, and watering the school gardens.

Advantages / Benefits
Improved health, reduced medical expenses, enhanced productivity
Who's involved
Central Government
Local Government
Schools
Community
Civil Society
Private Sector
Livestock rotation practices and de-stocking

Livestock practices during drought

Details

Livestock rotation approach relies on grazing different types of animals on the same land in a carefully controlled pattern, which ideally will enhance the land they roam. With several different animals, the technique is sometimes called multi-species grazing. Destocking refers to reducing the animal stock during drought.

Advantages / Benefits
Livestock rotation: more efficient use of pastures, better weed control, more parasite control, healthier and more productive soil, as well as more income per acre if you can accommodate more animals
Destocking: A successful drought strategy allows to focus limited resources (forage and stock water) on the breeding stock based on carefully selected traits and performance criteria
Who's involved
Farmers
Land restoration

Land restoration or rehabilitation is the process of ecological restoration of a site to a natural landscape and habitat, safe for humans,…

Details

Land restoration or rehabilitation is the process of ecological restoration of a site to a natural landscape and habitat, safe for humans, wildlife, and plant communities

Advantages / Benefits
Maintain biodiversity
Increases soil productivity
Creates jobs
Food supplies are enhanced
Land restoration
Better ground/surface water monitoring systems

Monitoring water quality

Details

A range of methods are used to test water quality, which may either be laboratory-based assessments or field test kits. Laboratory-based assessments are required when accurate detection of specific compounds must be completed. These analyses require expensive equipment at central laboratories. Field kit tests offer a useful alternative that provides onsite water monitoring. These kits are generally used for basic analysis such as water temperature, transparency and pH.

Advantages / Benefits
Improves livelihood security, reduces health risks and vulnerability in communities
Who's involved
Government
research institutions
NGOs
Sand dams

Sand dams are a simple, low-cost and low-maintenance, replicable rainwater harvesting technology.

Details

Sand dams are a simple, low-cost and low-maintenance, replicable rainwater harvesting technology. They provide a clean, local water supply for domestic and farming use and are suited to semi-arid areas of the world

Advantages / Benefits
Combat desertification by recharging groundwater and creating opportunity for sustainable land management
Mitigate climate change by creating water security and the time to practice climate-smart agriculture
Reduce conflict by increasing access to water for people and livestock Support disaster resilience by creating a buffer against drought and enabling vulnerable people to improve food production
Enable the installation of shallow wells producing safe drinking water
Who's involved
Local communities
NGOs
Fog harvesting

Fog harvesting refers to the collection of water from fog using large pieces of vertical canvas to make the fog droplets flow down towards a…

Details

Fog harvesting refers to the collection of water from fog using large pieces of vertical canvas to make the fog droplets flow down towards a trough under the canvas, known as a fog fence

Advantages / Benefits
Collection systems are easy to build, no energy is needed to collect or transport water, maintenance and repair are minimal and the cost is relatively low
Who's involved
Governments
NGOs
Local communities
Farmers
Fog harvesting
New livestock watering points

Dams, troughs or other built infrastructure to supply water to livestock to ensure they have sufficient water during drought.

Details

Dams, troughs or other built infrastructure to supply water to livestock to ensure they have sufficient water during drought.

Advantages / Benefits
Keeps livestock alive during drought
Stability of income
Who's involved
Farmers
New livestock watering points
Promotion of farm waste recycling and re-use

Sustainable use of agricultural waste

Details

Increases the recycling of water and nutrients, through the sustainable use of agricultural waste. Agricultural waste can also come from harvest and therefore transformed into biogas.

Advantages / Benefits
Significant reduction of harmful wastes disposed in the environment
Recycling of elements and water in agriculture which in turn, will reduce production cost and contribute to the increase in products competiveness and profits
Protection of renewable and non-renewable resources (soil, aquatic bodies, phosphoric minerals) through elements recycling
Who's involved
MoFA, NGOs, rural communities, food retailers, waste management companies, water companies, farmers, agricultural manufacturers, distributors and merchants
Solar powered groundwater pumps

A solar-powered pump runs on electricity generated by photovoltaic panels or the radiated thermal energy available from collected sunlight as…

Details

A solar-powered pump runs on electricity generated by photovoltaic panels or the radiated thermal energy available from collected sunlight as opposed to grid electricity or diesel run water pumps

Advantages / Benefits
Low maintenance
No fuel costs or spills
Easy to install
Simple and reliable
Unattended operation
System can be made to be mobile
Who's involved
Solar companies
Water companies
Energy companies
Government and NGOs
Solar powered groundwater pumps
Use of indigenous feed and fodder

Use of native plant species, traditional knowledge

Details

Use local native plant species which will be more sutable to local climates as the major or supplementary feed source.

Advantages / Benefits
Indgenous feed is likely to be more resilient to drought than other traditional feed sources
Will keep livestock alive during times of low feed
Who's involved
Farmers
Research Institutes
Government
Innovative indigenous and gender-balanced knowledge for agriculture

Women traditional knowledge in food supplies

Details

Women are often responsible for food processing and storage, collecting of water and firewood and for generating incomes for subsistence, managing available resources by using indigenous knowledge to secure food supplies for their households.

Advantages / Benefits
Rural women as local level experts manage to achieve sustainable food security at household levels, with practical, efficient and economic solutions based on indigenous knowledge
Who's involved
Rural women, policymakers
Reducing losses in water supply infrastructure

Improving water supply infraestructure

Details

Modernisation and improvement in water supply infrastructure to repair and replace aging infrasrtucture that is leaking and inefficient

Advantages / Benefits
Can save significant water in cases where infrastructure is very old and inefficient
Who's involved
Private companies
Governments
Drought proof drought prone villages (India)

Technological and social adaptability approaches

Details

Rain water use and storage. Eco friendly sustainable agriculture. Develop waste land, sloppy land and forest land (control of erosion loss Kitchen gardens for nutritional security testing of SRI and mixed cropping). Soil conservation, land shaping, pasture development, vegetative bunding

Advantages / Benefits
Any region with such traditional knowledge and techniques can replicate this approach with small local technological and social additions/adaptability approaches
These villages have been champions of forest protection traditionally, therefore, when the project talked about forest protection and management as one of the important components to arrest desertification, the people easily agreed to it and got organized
Who's involved
Local water councils
Farmers
Non-governmental organization (NGOs)s
Farmers