Spreading livestock manure on land
This method has a low effectiveness but low cost and maintenance.
The method is easy to implement as part of field preparation but has a short longevity.
The method can improve soil quality and has a moderate potential for combination with other methods.
Use of livestock manure needs to consider broader environmental impacts on air and water quality, soil chemistry and run-off potential.
Benefits from manure improving soil roughness may not be significant in terms of reducing wind erosion.
Spreading manure moistens soil and reduce dust emission, but beneficial impact may be short.
Excessive use of manure can lead to soil and water pollution.
Quantities which can be applied, and conditions of application may be governed by regulations.