Networks established at the regional level by affected country Parties to address specific themes of relevance in the framework of the UNCCD implementation. In particular, the Asian region is working on six TPNs (the following have been launched: TPN for desertification monitoring and assessment; on agro-forestry and soil conservation; on pasture management and sand dune fixation; on Water resources management for agriculture in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas; etc), the African region is also working on six TPNs (Networks for the integrated management of international river, lake and hydrogeological basins,; the promotion of agroforestry and soil conservation; the rational use of rangelands and promotion of fodder crops development; the ecological monitoring, natural resources mapping, remote sensing and early warning systems; the promotion of new and renewable energy sources and technologies; and the promotion of sustainable agricultural farming systems.).