Standing crop residue
This method has moderate efficiency, low cost (if done as part of crop harvesting or field preparation), low maintenance but short longevity.
Can improve soil quality.
The method is easy to establish and can be combined with no/low tillage methods.
Crop residue left in fields after harvests can provide graze for animals.
The type and density of grazing animals should not lead to disturbance of the soil at a level which can trigger dust entrainment.