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UNCCD Terminology

Keywords

Economic vulnerability factors

Glossary source
PRAIS
The observable/measured variables available as global and/or country-level and sub-national datasets, which are being recommended for use in constructing the Economic Component of the Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI). These factors have been used in the scientific literature and recommended by experts to define economic vulnerability to drought.

Energy consumption per capita

Glossary source
PRAIS
One of the factors recommended to estimate the economic component of the Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI). Use of primary energy on a per capita basis, where primary energy refers to energy before transformation to other end-use fuels. This includes indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.7 Though it does reflect climatic, geographic and economic factors, such as the relative price of energy, it is a measure of economic activity, with high-income economies consuming five times as much energy on a per capita basis than low- and middle-income economies. This factor implies that a growing economy would be more able to implement shortterm coping and long-term adaptation strategies. See also ‘Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI)’.

Environmental subsidy and similar transfer

Glossary source
PRAIS
An environmental subsidy or similar transfer is a transfer intended to support activities that protect the environment or reduce the use and extraction of natural resources. A subsidy or similar transfer should be treated as environmental when the primary intent or purpose of the government is for resources to be used for either environmental protection or resource management purposes.

Environmental tax

Glossary source
PRAIS
An environmental tax is a tax whose tax base is a physical unit (or a proxy of it) of something that has a proven, specific, negative impact on the environment. In practice, this definition is applied by looking at all of the various taxes levied in a country and making an assessment regarding whether the tax base in each circumstance is something that has a negative environmental impact. Since the application of this definition may vary across countries, for the purposes of international comparison of environmental taxes, lists of relevant tax bases that satisfy this definition have been developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and Eurostat. In cases where the use of the tax revenue is known, these taxes are considered “earmarked taxes”

Equity

Glossary source
PRAIS
Common equity is a share in the ownership of a corporation that gives the owner claims on the residual value of the corporation after creditors’ claims have been met. Public investors can take equity stakes directly in a company by purchasing a share of ownership, or can invest in the equity or extend a loan to a company indirectly, by investing in an equity or debt fund.

Expert judgement

Glossary source
PRAIS
Expert Judgement is a technique in which judgement is provided based upon a specific set of criteria and/or expertise that has been acquired in a specific knowledge area, application area, or product area, a particular discipline, an industry, etc. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training.

Exposure

Glossary source
PRAIS
Characterizes the presence of people, society, livelihoods, ecosystem, environment, resources, infrastructure, economic or cultural assets that could be adversely affected by hazards. In the context of a spatially and temporally varying hazard, exposure can be seen as the extent to which a unit of assessment falls within the geographical range of a hazard event

False negative

Glossary source
PRAIS
A result which wrongly indicates that a particular condition or attribute is absent. For UNCCD reporting, a false negative occurs when the One-Out All-Out process has incorrectly resulted in an area being identified as degraded in the context of SDG indicator 15.3.1. See also ‘False positive’

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Glossary source
PRAIS
Private foreign direct investment financial transactions (flows) comprise mainly three types of financing from the private sector: (i) acquisition or disposal of equity capital; (ii) reinvestment of earnings which are not distributed as dividends; and (iii) inter-company debt (payables and receivables, loans, debt securities). Direct investment comprises financing by an entity resident in a reporting country which has the objective of obtaining or retaining a lasting interest in an entity resident in a developing country

Financial instrument

Glossary source
PRAIS
Within the flow categories (see Type of flow) are numerous financial instruments. Financial instruments are categorised as grants, debt instruments (concessional or non-concessional loans, reimbursable grants, bonds and asset-backed securities), equities and shares in collective investment vehicles, insurances. The financial instrument classification also includes instruments that do not necessarily generate a flow (i.e. contingent liabilities) such as guarantees.

Financial resources

Glossary source
PRAIS
Financial transaction or financial flow from a provider to a recipient for activities, a projects, technical assistance or investments supporting the objectives of the Convention. Provider and recipients can be, as relevant to the different indicators, public of private entities, and located or operating in the provider country, the recipient country or a third country.

Fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FAPAR)

Glossary source
PRAIS
The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) is an important biophysical variable, and is widely used in satellite-based production efficiency models to estimate gross primary production or net primary production. FAPAR is the fraction of the incoming solar radiation in the Photosynthetically Active Radiation spectral region (400-700nm) that is absorbed by a photosynthetic organism, typically describing the light absorption across an integrated plant canopy.

Gender

Glossary source
PRAIS
Refers to the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female, and the relationships between women and men, and girls and boys, as well as the relations between women and those between men. These attributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialization processes. They are context/time specific and changeable. Gender is part of the broader sociocultural context.

Gender equality (Equality between women and men)

Glossary source
PRAIS
Gender equality refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. For the purpose of SO5 reporting, the “gender equality” parameter aims at collecting information on both the relevance of gender equality and mainstreaming in the reported activity, and the gender-related outcomes of the activity. The Gender policy marker included in the OECD DAC CRS allows for the identification of activities targeted to the policy objective. For further information on the scoring system, see https://one.oecd.org/document/DCD/DAC/STAT(2020)44/ADD2/FINAL/en/pdf, pg.48.

Government effectiveness

Glossary source
PRAIS
One of the factors recommended to estimate the social component of the Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI). It captures perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies. As such, it is one of the proxies to assess a country’s ability to cope with drought events. See also ‘Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI)’

Government expenditure

Glossary source
PRAIS
Government expenditures refers to the resources used by governments for implementing the broad array of government objectives and delegated mandates, from the uniquely publiclyprovided services, such as justice or voting logistics, to paying for wages of civil servants and transportation infrastructure, among many other government activities. General government expenditures provide an indication for the government size as they finance, for example, the costs of policing, occupational licensing, business registration, the provision of public transportation, health care, pensions, unemployment benefits, environmental protection, etc.

Government Finance Statistics (GFS) database

Glossary source
PRAIS
The Government Finance Statistics (GFS) database from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) contains fiscal data for all reporting countries. It includes detailed data on revenues, expenditures, transactions in financial assets and liabilities, and balance sheet data and includes data for the general government sector and its subsectors (e.g., central government, local government, state government and social security funds). This site also includes preset presentations of GFS data by country and by indicators, as well as provides the option to download data with customized queries. GFS data are compiled by country authorities and reported to the IMF Statistics Department annually. In addition, sub annual (monthly or quarterly) fiscal data can be found in the International Finance Statistics datasets.

Government revenue

Glossary source
PRAIS
Revenue is an increase in net worth resulting from a transaction. For general government units, there are four main sources of revenue: taxes and other compulsory transfers imposed by government units, property income derived from the ownership of assets, sales of goods and services, and voluntary transfers received from other units. Tax revenue, which forms the dominant share of revenue for many government units, is composed of compulsory transfers to the general government sector.

Growing season metrics

Glossary source
PRAIS
Phenological variables that can be extracted from a temporal curve, produced from the application of a vegetation index to image data. These metrics are the basis for diverse research and monitoring applications, including climate change studies.

Hazard

Glossary source
PRAIS
A possible, future occurrence of natural or human-induced physical event that may have adverse effects on vulnerable and exposed elements.